Analog computer

Each plate, by itself, was like a Scotch yoke, known to steam engine enthusiasts. mehr

Diesel engine

Diesel spent two more years making improvements and in 1896 demonstrated another model with a theoretical efficiency of 75%, in contrast to the 10% efficiency of the steam engine. mehr

Engine

Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. mehr

Engine

When the internal combustion engine was invented, the term "motor" was initially used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. mehr

Engine

The Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. Improving on the design of the 1712 Newcomen steam engine, the Watt steam engine, developed sporadically from 1763 to 1775, was a great step in the development of the steam engine. Offering a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency, James Watt's design became synonymous with steam engines, due in no small part to his business partner, Matthew Boulton. mehr

Engine

The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine, or steam as in a steam engine or an organic liquid such as n-pentane in an Organic Rankine cycle. In the case of the steam engine, the fluid changes phases between liquid and gas. mehr

Heat engine

Examples of everyday heat engines include the steam engine (for example in trains), the diesel engine, and the gasoline (petrol) engine in an automobile. mehr

Horsepower

The idea was later used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines. This royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. mehr

Industrial Revolution

In close collaboration with Englishman Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder thereby making the low pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. mehr

Industrial Revolution

By 1783 the Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill. mehr

Industrial Revolution

Until about 1800, the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained portative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine. Around the start of the 19th century, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick, and the American, Oliver Evans began to construct higher pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. mehr

Industrial Revolution

In the early 19th century after the expiration of Watt's patent, the steam engine underwent many improvements by a host of inventors and engineers. mehr

Industrial Revolution

Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large-scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton and Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers. mehr

Industrial Revolution

Later, each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. mehr

Industrial Revolution

The advent of the Age of Enlightenment provided an intellectual framework which welcomed the practical application of the growing body of scientific knowledge—a factor evidenced in the systematic development of the steam engine, guided by scientific analysis, and the development of the political and sociological analyses, culminating in Scottish economist Adam Smith's "The Wealth of Nations". mehr

Industrial Revolution

Allen, "The Steam engine of Thomas Newcomen" (Landmark, Ashbourne, 1997), 44. mehr

James Watt

"James Watt", FRS, FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose Watt steam engine, an improvement of the Newcomen steam engine, was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world. mehr

James Watt

In his retirement, Watt continued to develop new inventions though none was as significant as his steam engine work. mehr

James Watt

Watt began to experiment with steam, though he had never seen an operating steam engine. Understanding of the steam engine was in a very primitive state, for the science of thermodynamics would not be formalised for nearly another 100 years. mehr

James Watt

Over the next six years, he made a number of other improvements and modifications to the steam engine. mehr

James Watt

He was a rather poor businessman, and especially hated bargaining and negotiating terms with those who sought to use the steam engine. mehr

James Watt

James Watt's improvements to the steam engine "converted it from a prime mover of marginal efficiency into the mechanical workhorse of the Industrial Revolution". mehr

James Watt

The watt is named after James Watt for his contributions to the development of the steam engine, and was adopted by the Second Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1889 and by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960 as the unit of power incorporated in the International System of Units (or "SI"). mehr

James Watt

The huge painting "James Watt contemplating the steam engine" by James Eckford Lauder is now owned by the National Gallery of Scotland. mehr

Pump

They include any type of pump powered by a steam engine and also pistonless pumps such as Thomas Savery's or the Pulsometer steam pump. mehr

Plough

The advent of the mobile steam engine allowed steam power to be applied to ploughing from about 1850. In Europe, soil conditions were often too soft to support the weight of heavy traction engines. mehr

Power (physics)

In the SI system, the unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as the watt in honour of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine. mehr

Piston

This pin is mounted within the piston: unlike the steam engine, there is no piston rod or crosshead (except big two stroke engines). mehr

Piston

The name 'trunk piston' derives from the 'trunk engine', an early design of marine steam engine. To make these more compact, they avoided the steam engine's usual piston rod with separate crosshead and were instead the first engine design to place the gudgeon pin directly within the piston. mehr

Reciprocating engine

Each piston is inside a cylinder, into which a gas is introduced, either already under pressure (e.g. steam engine), or heated inside the cylinder either by ignition of a fuel air mixture (internal combustion engine) or by contact with a hot heat exchanger in the cylinder (Stirling engine). mehr

Reciprocating engine

The reciprocating engine developed in Europe during the 18th century, first as the atmospheric engine then later as the steam engine. mehr

Rudolf Diesel

He first worked with steam, his research into thermal efficiency and fuel efficiency leading him to build a steam engine using ammonia vapour. He then began designing an engine based on the Carnot cycle, and in 1893, soon after Karl Benz was granted a patent for his invention of the motor car in 1886, Diesel published a treatise entitled "Theorie und Konstruktion eines rationellen Wärmemotors zum Ersatz der Dampfmaschine und der heute bekannten Verbrennungsmotoren" "and Construction of a Rational Heat-engine to Replace the Steam Engine and Combustion Engines Known Today" and formed the basis for his work on and invention of the diesel engine. mehr

Rudolf Diesel

He knew that as much as 90% of the energy available in the fuel is wasted in a steam engine. mehr

Robert Fulton

Fulton became interested in steam engines and using them on steamboats in 1777 when he was around age 12 and visited state delegate William Henry of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who himself had earlier learned about inventor James Watt, (1736-1819), and his Watt steam engine on a visit to England. mehr

Robert Fulton

The following year Fitch launched a boat powered by a steam engine driving several stern mounted oars. mehr

Steam engine

A "steam engine" is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. mehr

Steam engine

The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont patented in 1606 the first steam engine. Thomas Newcomen's "atmospheric engine" was the first commercial true steam engine using a piston, and was used in 1712 for pumping in a mine. mehr

Steam engine

In 1781 James Watt patented a steam engine that produced continuous rotary motion. Steam engines could also be applied to vehicles such as traction engines and the railway locomotives. The stationary steam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution, allowing factories to locate where water power was unavailable. mehr

Steam engine

In general usage, the term "steam engine" can refer to either the integrated steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Reciprocating piston type steam engines remained the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating (piston) steam engines in commercial usage, and the ascendancy of steam turbines in power generation. Considering that the great majority of worldwide electric generation is produced by turbine type steam engines, the "steam age" is continuing with energy levels far beyond those of the turn of the 19th century. mehr

Steam engine

The "Aeolipile" (also known as a Hero engine) described by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is considered to be the first recorded steam engine. mehr

Steam engine

"Thomas Newcomen", in 1712, modified Savery’s engine and developed first commercially successful steam engine of five horse power (5 hp). mehr

Steam engine

"James Watt", in 1781, patented steam engine that produced continued rotary motion and the power about 10 hp. It was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above "atmospheric" to drive the piston helped by a partial vacuum. mehr

Steam engine

In a steam engine, a piston or steam turbine or any other similar device for doing mechanical work takes a supply of steam at high pressure and temperature and gives out a supply of steam at lower pressure and temperature, using as much of the difference in steam energy as possible to do mechanical work. mehr

Steam engine

The Quasiturbine is a uniflow rotary steam engine where steam intakes in hot areas, while exhausting in cold areas. mehr

Steam engine

The Quasiturbine is a new type of uniflow rotary steam engine. mehr

Steam engine

The Rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine. mehr

Steam engine

The steam engine contributed much to the development of thermodynamic theory; however, the only applications of scientific theory that influenced the steam engine were the original concepts of harnessing the power of steam and atmospheric pressure and knowledge of properties of heat and steam. The experimental measurements made by Watt on a model steam engine led to the development of the separate condenser. mehr

Steam engine

In practice, a steam engine exhausting the steam to atmosphere will typically have an efficiency (including the boiler) in the range of 1-10%, but with the addition of a condenser and multiple expansion, and high steam pressure/temperature, it may be greatly improved, historically into the regime of 10-20%, and very rarely slightly higher. mehr

Solar energy

inventor, engineer and solar energy pioneer built a small demonstration solar engine that worked by reflecting solar energy onto square boxes filled with ether, which has a lower boiling point than water, and were fitted internally with black pipes which in turn powered a steam engine. Shuman then constructed a full-scale steam engine powered by low-pressure water, enabling him to patent the entire solar engine system by 1912. mehr

Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot

When Carnot began working on his book, steam engines had achieved widely recognized economic and industrial importance, but there had been no real scientific study of them. Newcomen had invented the first piston-operated steam engine over a century before, in 1712; some 50 years after that, James Watt made his celebrated improvements, which were responsible for greatly increasing the efficiency and practicality of steam engines. mehr
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