Bernard of Clairvaux

Bernard of Clairvaux was named a Doctor of the Church in 1830. At the 800th anniversary of his death, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical on Bernard, Doctor Mellifluus, in which he labeled him "The Last of the Fathers." Bernard did not reject human philosophy which is genuine philosophy, which leads to God; he differentiates between different kinds of knowledge, the highest being theological. mehr


Notable past visitors to the mountain peak include Pope Pius XII, Pope John Paul II, Alberto Santos-Dumont, German Sueiro Vazquez, Albert Einstein, Diana, Princess of Wales, and General Sherman, among others. mehr

Catherine of Siena

On 18 June 1939 Pope Pius XII named her a joint Patron Saint of Italy along with Saint Francis of Assisi. mehr

Deuterocanonical books

This decree was clarified somewhat by Pope Pius XI on June 2, 1927, who allowed that the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute, and it was further explicated by Pope Pius XII's "Divino afflante Spiritu". mehr

Francis of Assisi

On June 18, 1939, Pope Pius XII named Francis a joint Patron Saint of Italy along with Saint Catherine of Siena with the apostolic letter "Licet Commissa". mehr

Humphrey Bogart

The Bogarts started the trip with a junket through Europe, including a visit with Pope Pius XII. mehr

Foreign relations of India

The diplomatic mission was established as the Apostolic Delegation to the East Indies in 1881, and included Ceylon, and was extended to Malaca in 1889, and then to Burma in 1920, and eventually included Goa in 1923. It was raised to an Internunciature by Pope Pius XII in 12 June 1948 and to a full Apostolic Nunciature by Pope Paul VI on 22 August 1967. mehr

John the Evangelist

This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white. mehr

New Testament

Later, Pope Pius XI on 2 June 1927 decreed the Comma Johanneum was open to dispute and Pope Pius XII on 3 September 1943 issued the encyclical "Divino afflante Spiritu", which allowed translations based on other versions than just the Latin Vulgate, notably in English the New American Bible. mehr

Pope Leo III

Because of this irregurality and the lack of evidences about his holiness, his name was eliminated during liturgical reform in 1953 by Pope Pius XII. mehr

Pope John XXIII

In a consistory on 12 January 1953 Pope Pius XII made Roncalli a cardinal as the Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca in addition to naming him as the Patriarch of Venice. mehr

Pope John XXIII

He was sent a letter by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, and Roncalli later recalled that it was probably the last letter Pacelli sent until his election as Pope Pius XII on 2 March 1939. Roncalli expressed happiness that Pacelli was elected, and, on radio, listened to the coronation of the new pontiff. mehr

Pope John XXIII

On 22 December 1944, during World War II, Pope Pius XII named him to be the new Apostolic Nuncio to recently liberated France. mehr

Pope John XXIII

On 12 January 1953, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice and, accordingly, raised to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of "Santa Prisca" by Pope Pius XII. mehr

Pope John XXIII

After the long pontificate of Pope Pius XII, the cardinals chose a man who – it was presumed because of his advanced age – would be a short-term or "stop-gap" pope. mehr

Pope Pius XII

After World War II Pope Pius XII focused on material aid to war-torn Europe, an internal internationalization of the Roman Catholic Church, and the development of its worldwide diplomatic relations. mehr

Pope Paul VI

Pope Pius XII presented the new Archbishop Giovanni Battista Montini "as his personal gift to Milan". mehr

Pope Paul VI

In the final session of the Council, Paul VI announced that he would open the canonization processes of his immediate predecessors: Pope Pius XII and Pope John XXIII. mehr

Pope Innocent XI

After a difficult cause for canonization, starting in 1791, which caused considerable controversy over the years and stopping on several occasions, he was beatified with no opposition in 1956 by Pope Pius XII. mehr

Roman Missal

Pope Pius XII issued no new typical edition of the Roman Missal, but authorized printers to replace the earlier texts for Palm Sunday, Holy Thursday, Good Friday and the Easter Vigil with those that he began to introduce in 1951 and that he made universally obligatory in 1955. The Pope also removed from the Vigil of Pentecost the series of six Old Testament readings, with their accompanying Tracts and Collects, but these continued to be printed until 1962. mehr

Roman Missal

Acceding to the wishes of many of the bishops, Pope Pius XII judged it expedient also to reduce the rubrics of the missal to a simpler form, a simplification enacted by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of 23 March 1955. The changes this made in the General Roman Calendar are indicated in General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII. mehr

Roman Missal

His successor, Pope John XXIII, issued a new typical edition of the Roman Missal in 1962. This incorporated the revised Code of Rubrics which Pope Pius XII's commission had prepared, and which Pope John XXIII had made obligatory with effect from 1 January 1961. In the Missal, this Code of Rubrics replaced two of the documents in the 1920 edition; and the Pope's motu proprio "Rubricarum instructum" took the place of the superseded the Apostolic constitution "Divino afflatu" of Pope Pius X. mehr

Roman Missal

For information on the calendars included in pre-1970 editions (a small part of the full Missal), see General Roman Calendar of 1960, General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII, General Roman Calendar of 1954 and Tridentine Calendar. mehr

Roman Curia

Established by Pope Pius XII on 19 April 1958, it is charged with providing assistance to and examining matters pertaining to the Church in Latin America. The Commission operates under the auspices of the Congregation for Bishops. mehr


"Sedevacantism" is the position, held by a minority of traditionalist Catholics, that the present occupant of the papal see is not truly pope and that, for lack of a valid pope, the see has been vacant since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958. mehr


The devotion was eventually approved by Pope Pius XII in 1958 and he formally declared the Feast of the Holy Face of Jesus as Shrove Tuesday (the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday) for all Roman Catholics. mehr

Politics of Vatican City

This commission was established in 1939 by Pope Pius XII. mehr

Weimar Republic

Kaas, the party's chairman since 1928, had strong connections to the Vatican Secretary of State, later Pope Pius XII. mehr


Pope Pius XII deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption. mehr


Before the dogmatic definition, in Deiparae Virginis Mariae Pope Pius XII sought the opinion of Catholic Bishops and a large number of them pointed to the Book of Genesis (3:15) as scriptural support for the dogma. mehr

Saint Casimir

On June 11, 1948, Pope Pius XII named Saint Casimir the special patron of all youth. mehr

Monte Cassino

The destruction of the Monastery, built around the year 500, caused great controversy with the Pope Pius XII but possibly worse than that it created even better defenses for the Germans since they NOW occupied the ruins of the monastery. mehr

John the Apostle

This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white. mehr

Going My Way

After World War II, Bing Crosby and Leo McCarey presented a copy of the motion picture to Pope Pius XII at the Vatican. mehr


Eventually Pope Pius XII approved the devotion in 1958 and declared the Feast of the Holy Face of Jesus as Shrove Tuesday (the day before Ash Wednesday) for all Catholics. mehr


Pope Pius XII and his successors actively promoted veneration of the Virgin in Lourdes and Fatima, which is credited with a new resurgence of the rosary within the Catholic Church. mehr

Enrico Berlinguer

After the surprising opening of 1970 toward conservatives, and the still discussed proposal of the Historic Compromise, he published a correspondence with Monsignor Luigi Bettazzi, the Bishop of Ivrea; it was an astonishing event, since Pope Pius XII had excommunicated the Communists soon after World War II, and the possibility of any relationship between communists and Catholics seemed very unlikely. mehr

Pope Leo XIII

Since Leo XIII, Papal teachings have expanded on the rights and obligations of workers and the limitations of private property: Pope Pius XI Quadragesimo anno, the Social teachings of Pope Pius XII on a huge range of social issues, John XXIII Mater et magistra in 1961, Pope Paul VI, the encyclical "Populorum progressio" on world development issues, and Pope John Paul II, "Centesimus annus", commemorating the 100th anniversary of "Rerum novarum". mehr

Miklós Horthy

The Horthys lived there for four years, supported financially by ambassador John Montgomery, his successor, Herbert Pell, and by Pope Pius XII, whom he knew personally. mehr

Pope Pius IX

On 7 December 1954, Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause and Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985. Together with Pope John XXIII he was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle and was assigned the liturgical feast day of February 7 which is the date of his death. mehr

Liturgical year

The liturgical calendar in that form of the Roman Rite (see General Roman Calendar of 1960) differs in some respects from that of the present ordinary form, as will be noted below, and also from the earlier General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII, the still earlier General Roman Calendar of 1954 and the original Tridentine Calendar. mehr

Liturgical year

The division into doubles (of various kinds) semidoubles and simples continued until 1955, when Pope Pius XII abolished the rank of semidouble, making all the previous semidoubles simples, and reducing the previous simples to a mere commemoration in the Mass of another feast day or of the feria on which they fell (see General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII). mehr

Liturgical year

The Roman Catholic teaching on this feast was defined as dogma on November 1, 1950 by Pope Pius XII in the Papal Bull, "Munificentissimus Deus". mehr

Beer Hall Putsch

A staunchly conservative Roman Catholic, he was having dinner with the Archbishop of Munich, Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber and with the Nuncio to Bavaria, Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli (who would later become Pope Pius XII), when he learned of the putsch. mehr

Pope Pius X

The event was marked by the erecting of a monument in his memory in St. Peter's Basilica. On 19 August 1939, Pope Pius XII (1939–58) delivered a tribute to Pius X at Castel Gandolfo. mehr


During the process of restoration of the Syro-Malabar Qurbana in 1957, Pope Pius XII of Rome requested the restoration of the Anaphorae of Mar Theodore and Mar Nestorius. mehr

Our Lady of Guadalupe

By a bull dated February 8, 1887 Pope Leo XIII granted permission for a Canonical Coronation of the image which occurred on October 12, 1895. Under this title, she was also proclaimed "Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines" in July 1935 by Pope Pius XI both witnessed and signed by Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli, a designation he later rescinded in September 1942 upon becoming Pope Pius XII. mehr

Our Lady of Guadalupe

On July 16, 1935, Pope Pius XI declared Our Lady of Guadalupe "Heavenly Patroness of the Philippines" and the relative Apostolic Letter was signed by Vatican Secretary of State, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII). mehr

Our Lady of Guadalupe

The title "Patroness of the Americas" was accorded by Pope Pius XII on October 12, 1945. Pope Pius XII declared the Virgin of Guadalupe "Queen of Mexico and Empress of the Americas" in 1945, and "Patroness of the Americas" in 1946. Pope John XXIII invoked her as "Mother of the Americas" in 1961, referring to her as Mother and Teacher of the Faith of All American populations. mehr

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

They drew contrasts to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, who refused to leave London during the Blitz, and of Pope Pius XII, who mixed with Rome's crowds and prayed with them after the working class Roman neighborhood of Quartiere San Lorenzo was bombed and destroyed. mehr
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